Propaganda is a form of communication that attempts to influence public opinion and achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist through falsifying facts or presenting facts selectively. Unlike propaganda, method of persuasion is more interactive and attempts to satisfy the interests of both persuader and target group.

Initially, Latin word ‘Propaganda’ was a neutral term implying the dissemination and promotion of a certain idea. Origins of this word are related to the missionary organization Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Congregation for Evangelization of People) established by Vatican in 1622, main purpose of which was to spread Catholicism. Starting from the 18th century, this term was also used in relation to secular activities, but later it gradually gained a negative connotation in the field of politics.

There are two types of propaganda – black and white:

  • White propaganda comes from an identified source and the content of the message is true or close to truth.
  • Black propaganda covers its sources or indicates other, incorrect sources and the content of the message is based on a lie, fabrication and conspiracies. 

Propaganda has following features:

  • Mislead and influence cognition; 
  • intent to do harm; 
  • purposeful and intentional;
  • Systematic.


Methods and Techniques of Propaganda


Three stage model


Weaponization of religion/Information


Deflective Source Model


Social media as a source of misinformation


Ad nauseam


The false dilemma




Card Stacking


Creation of Simulation Evidence


Changing Quotes, Sources and Context


Demonization Technique


Exaggeration and Over-Generalization


Denying Facts